Showing posts with label M.N. Roy. Show all posts
Showing posts with label M.N. Roy. Show all posts

Wednesday, 8 January 2014

Radical Humanism, M.N. Roy and The Movement - 3

3. The Man

The Revolutionary Philosopher of Freedom

Perhaps the assessment of Prof. G.D.Parikh gave us the true picture of M.N.Roy : “He was unique in the universality of his experience. A dozen different countries spread over three major continents provide the background of his chequered career. He occupied leading positions in the great movements of Nationalism, Communism, and Humanism, continuing to grow throughout, in his understanding aided and enriched by his rare intellectual gifts and vast experience. While holding positions of authority and influence and rubbing shoulders with some of the greatest figures of contemporary history, he did not hesitate in choosing the path of wilderness whenever his convictions, in the context of the situations he faced, seemed to demand the choice. He combined firmness of commitment to the basic value of freedom and truth with a remarkable open-mindedness, capable of absorbing new ideas and learning from fresh experience. Indeed, his life was a great quest, a steady and purposeful march; the movement had its moments of slowing down or setbacks, but it knew no failures or defeats. It had no room whatever for frustration or bitterness of any kind. That his life, no less than his ideas, is his bequest for future generations is the real measure of his greatness.”Prof. Parikh was not eulogizing Roy when he wrote : “There was something of the universal man in him, whose company made even the most mediocre of his comrades feel that life, with all its ugly patches, was exciting and beautiful and that they, too, had an important place in its ever renewing procession. Few leaders have been able to release men’s creativity as Roy could do without resorting to shamanism of any kind.”
It is impossible to sketch all events in the life of M.N.Roy. Below is an attempt made to note the most important phases and happenings as contained in Prof. Parikh's book:

M.N.Roy  (Narendranath Bhattacharya)

 – Important Events

1887, March 21           Birth at Urbalia, 24 Parganas, Bengal

                                         Father - Dinabandhu Bhattacharya, Head Pandit of Local  School

                                         Mother - Basantha Kumari of Kodalia, 24 Parganas

1888 -  1908                 Jnan Vikasini School of Arbalia,

                                         Harinabhi Anglo-Sanskrit School of Kodalia,
                                         Passed Entrance Examination of Bengal NationalCollege  and studied  at  Bengal Technical Institute.                                             

1905                              Organised free social service among rural poor

Joined Underground  movement (leaders: Aurobindo and Barin Ghosh)

Organised close-knit group at Changripota

1907                              First Political dacoity at Changripota Railway Station.

1908                              Arrest and Release

1909                             Dacoity together with Hari Kumar Chakravarthy

1910 – 11                    Howrah- Sibpur Conspiracy Case – arrested and discharged

1911 – 13                    Reorganised revolutionary movement under Jatin Mukherji

1914                             Theft of 50 Mauser Pistols and 46 000 rounds of ammunition

1915                               Garden Reach Robbery

Left for Batevia  as Charles A. Martin to negotiate with Germans for supply of arms

Left India again in search of arms – travelled through China, Japan and Far East on way to Germany

1916                                Reached San Fransisco

                                          Met Evelyn Trent

 Moved to New York, Met Lala Lajpat Rai, adopted the name of 

“Manavendra Nath Roy”.

1917 – 1918                Arrested by American Police – Released on bail – Escaped to Mexico with Evelyn(now married to Roy) with a letter of introduction of President of Stanford University Mr. David Starr Jordan to General Salvador Alvarado, Governor of Yucatan in Mexico

                                    Contacted German Embassy in Mexico,  got funds to buy arms  in China – sent money to Rash Behari Bose in Japan and to Indian Revolutionaries in U.S.A.

                                    Was introduced to President Carranza and soon became his friend

                                    Published in Spanish: ‘The way to Durable World Peace’, Open letter to Woodrow Wilson , ‘Voice of India’.

                                    Published: ‘India – Her Past, Present and Future’ (First major work)

                                    Organised a conference of Socialist Party of Mexico – was elected its General Scretary.

1919                           Founding of El Partido Communista de Mexico – Elected as delegate to Second Congress of the communist Inter-national – Met Michael Barodin in Mexico .

                                    Left for Europe with Evelyn – Carried Mexican diplomatic passports [as Segnor and Segnora Robert Alleny Villa Garcia]

1920                              In Berlin- Met several communist leaders of different countries of Europe

            May – October

                                       Reached Moscow (May), meeting  with Lenin

                                       Second congress of Communist international

                                       Membership of Mali Bureau of C.I., Mission to Tashkent

                                       Establishment of India House and Military School.
                                       Formation of Communist Party of India in Tahkent

1921 April                  Establishment of University of toilers of the East.

            May                  Closure of Military School

            June – July      Third Congress of Comm.Int.

            Sept.                 Manifesto to Ahmedabad session of Indian National Congress

            Dec.                  Publication of  ‘India in Transition’, Russian Edition ( Eng. Edition

                                       middle  of 1922.)

1922 April                  Shifting of Head Quarters to Berlin.

            May                   Publication of  “Vanguard

                                       Peshawar  Communist  Conspiracy Cases; live upto 1927.

            Nov.                  Fourth Congress of C.I. Elected to Executive Committee of C.I.

            Dec.                  Manifesto to Gaya Session of Congress.

1924 June – July        Fifth Congress of C.I. Election to C.I. bodies, Kanpur Communist  Conspiracy Case. 


1927 Jan. -  Aug.        Mission to China.

           Aug.                    Returned from China to Moscow.

            Oct.                    In Berlin to resume activities relating to India

1928 Feb.                    In  Moscow  to attend 7th  plena. m of ECCI.

          April                   Flight from Moscow.

1929 march               Meerut Communist Conspiracy Case.

           Dec.                    Expulsion from C.I.

1930 Dec.                   Unlawful return to India.

1931 March               Attended Karachi Session of Congress

1931 July                    Arrested in Bombay after seven months of Under ground activity.

          Aug. – Dec.       Trial in Kanpur.

1933 Jan.                    Sentence of transportation for twelve years. Later reduced in appeal to six years’ rigorous imprisonment.

1936 Nov.                  Release from Dehra Dun Jail.

           Dec.                  Attended Faizpur Session of the Congress.

1937 April                  Publication of  “Independent India.”

1939 March               Attended INC  Session in Tripuri.

                                      Formation of League of Radical Congressmen.

1940 March               Contested election to INC presidentship.

           May                   First study Camp in Dehra Dun.

           Oct.                    Resigned from INC on the issue of the World War II.

           Dec.                   Formation of Radical Democratic Party. 

                                      Formation of National Democratic Union.

1941 Nov.                  Establishment of Indian Federation of   Labour.

1942 Dec.                   Second Conference of RDP.

1944 April                  Publication of Peoples’ Plan.

           Dec.                   Third Conference of RDP.

1945                           Publication of Draft Constitution .

1946 Aug.                   Establishment of Indian Renaissance Institute at Dehra Dun.

            Dec.                  Fourth RDP Conference and adoption of Twenty-Two Thesis.

1947 May                   Study Camp in Dehra Dun.

1948 Dec.                   Dissolution of RDP at the fifth conference of the Party.

1952 June                  Accident at Mussoorie leading to prolonged illness.

1954 Jan.                    Death in Dehra Dun